Item 1. Business

General

Target Corporation (Target, the Corporation or the Company) was incorporated in Minnesota in 1902. We offer to our customers, referred to as "guests," everyday essentials and fashionable, differentiated merchandise at discounted prices. Our ability to deliver a preferred shopping experience to our guests is supported by our supply chain and technology, our devotion to innovation, our loyalty offerings and suite of fulfillment options, and our disciplined approach to managing our business and investing in future growth. We operate as a single segment designed to enable guests to purchase products seamlessly in stores or through our digital channels. Since 1946, we have given 5 percent of our profit to communities.

Financial Highlights

For information on key financial highlights, see Part II, Item 6, Selected Financial Data Opens in same window, and Part II, Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) Opens in same window.

Seasonality

A larger share of annual revenues and earnings traditionally occurs in the fourth quarter because it includes the November and December holiday sales period.

Merchandise

We sell a wide assortment of general merchandise and food. The majority of our general merchandise stores offer an edited food assortment, including perishables, dry grocery, dairy, and frozen items. Nearly all of our stores larger than 170,000 square feet offer a full line of food items comparable to traditional supermarkets. Our small format stores, generally smaller than 50,000 square feet, offer curated general merchandise and food assortments. Our digital channels include a wide merchandise assortment, including many items found in our stores, along with a complementary assortment.

A significant portion of our sales is from national brand merchandise. Approximately one-third of 2019 sales was related to our owned and exclusive brands, including but not limited to the following:

Owned Brands

  • A New Day™
  • All in Motion™
  • Archer Farms®
  • Art Class™
  • Auden™
  • Ava & Viv®
  • Boots & Barkley®
  • Cat & Jack™
  • Cloud Island™
  • Colsie™
  • Everspring™
  • Good & Gather™
  • Goodfellow & Co.™
  • Hearth & Hand™ with Magnolia
  • heyday™
  • Hyde & Eek! Boutique™
  • JoyLab™
  • Kona Sol™
  • Made By Design™
  • Market Pantry®
  • More Than Magic™
  • Opalhouse™
  • Open Story™
  • Original Use™
  • Pillowfort™
  • Project 62™
  • Prologue™
  • Room Essentials®
  • Shade & Shore™
  • Simply Balanced™
  • Smartly™
  • Smith & Hawken®
  • Sonia Kashuk®
  • Spritz™
  • Stars Above™
  • Sun Squad™
  • Sutton & Dodge®
  • Threshold™
  • Universal Thread™
  • up & up®
  • Wild Fable™
  • Wondershop™
  • Xhilaration®

Exclusive Brands

  • California Roots™
  • Defy & Inspire™
  • Fieldcrest®
  • Hand Made Modern®
  • Isabel Maternity™ by Ingrid & Isabel®
  • Just One You® made by carter’s®
  • Kristin Ess
  • Rosé Bae™
  • The Collection
  • Wine Cube®
  • Who What Wear™

We also sell merchandise through periodic exclusive design and creative partnerships and generate revenue from in-store amenities such as Target Café and leased or licensed departments such as Target Optical, Starbucks, and other food service offerings. CVS Pharmacy, Inc. (CVS) operates pharmacies and clinics in our stores under a perpetual operating agreement from which we generate annual occupancy income.

Customer Loyalty Programs

Our guests receive a 5 percent discount on nearly all purchases and receive free shipping at Target.com when they use their Target Debit Card, Target Credit Card, or Target™ MasterCard® (collectively, RedCards™). We also seek to drive customer loyalty and trip frequency through our Target Circle program, where members earn 1 percent rewards on nearly all non-RedCard purchases and other benefits.

Distribution

The vast majority of merchandise is distributed to our stores through our network of distribution centers. Common carriers ship merchandise to and from our distribution centers. Vendors or third-party distributors ship certain food items and other merchandise directly to our stores. Merchandise sold through our digital channels is distributed to our guests via common carriers (from stores, distribution centers, vendors, and third-party distributors), delivery via our wholly owned subsidiary, Shipt, Inc. (Shipt), and through guest pick-up at our stores. Our stores fulfill the majority of the digitally originated sales, which allows improved product availability, faster delivery times, and reduced shipping costs.

Employees

As of February 1, 2020, we employed approximately 368,000 full-time, part-time, and seasonal employees, referred to as "team members." Because of the seasonal nature of the retail business, employment levels peak in the holiday season. We offer a broad range of company-paid benefits to our team members. Eligibility for and the level of benefits vary depending on team members' full-time or part-time status, compensation level, date of hire, and/or length of service. Company-paid benefits include a 401(k) plan, medical and dental plans, disability insurance, paid vacation, tuition reimbursement, various team member assistance programs, life insurance, a pension plan (closed to new participants, with limited exceptions), and merchandise and other discounts. We believe our team member relations are good.

Working Capital

Effective inventory management is key to our ongoing success, and we use various techniques including demand forecasting and planning and various forms of replenishment management. We achieve effective inventory management by staying in-stock in core product offerings, maintaining positive vendor relationships, and carefully planning inventory levels for seasonal and apparel items to minimize markdowns.

The Liquidity and Capital Resources Opens in same window section in MD&A provides additional details.

Competition

We compete with traditional and internet retailers, including department stores, off-price general merchandise retailers, wholesale clubs, category-specific retailers, drug stores, supermarkets, and other forms of retail commerce. Our ability to positively differentiate ourselves from other retailers and provide compelling value to our guests largely determines our competitive position within the retail industry.

Intellectual Property

Our brand image is a critical element of our business strategy. Our principal trademarks, including Target, our "Expect More. Pay Less." brand promise, and our "Bullseye Design," have been registered with the United States (U.S.) Patent and Trademark Office. We also seek to obtain and preserve intellectual property protection for our owned brands.

Geographic Information

Nearly all of our revenues are generated within the U.S. The vast majority of our property and equipment is located within the U.S.

Available Information

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available free of charge at investors.target.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such material with, or furnish it to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Ethics, Corporate Responsibility Report, and the charters for the committees of our Board of Directors are also available free of charge in print upon request or at investors.target.com.