Item 1A. Risk Factors

Our business is subject to many risks. Set forth below are the material risks we face. Risks are listed in the categories where they primarily apply, but other categories may also apply.

Competitive and Reputational Risks

Our continued success is dependent on positive perceptions of Target which, if eroded, could adversely affect our business and our relationships with our guests and team members.

We believe that one of the reasons our guests prefer to shop at Target, our team members choose Target as a place of employment and our vendors choose to do business with us is the reputation we have built over many years for serving our four primary constituencies: guests, team members, shareholders, and the communities in which we operate. To be successful in the future, we must continue to preserve Target's reputation. Reputational value is based in large part on perceptions, and broad access to social media makes it easy for anyone to provide public feedback that can influence perceptions of Target. It may be difficult to control negative publicity, regardless of whether it is accurate. While reputations may take decades to build, any negative incidents can quickly erode trust and confidence, particularly if they result in negative mainstream and social media publicity, governmental investigations, or litigation. Negative incidents could lead to tangible adverse effects on our business, including consumer boycotts, lost sales, loss of new store and technology development opportunities, or team member retention and recruiting difficulties. In addition, vendors and others with whom we choose to do business may affect our reputation. For example, CVS operates clinics and pharmacies within our stores, and our guests’ perceptions of and experiences with CVS may impact our reputation.

If we are unable to positively differentiate ourselves from other retailers, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

In the past, we have been able to compete successfully by differentiating our guests’ shopping experience through a careful combination of price, merchandise assortment, store environment, convenience, guest service, loyalty programs and marketing efforts. Our ability to create a personalized guest experience through the collection and use of accurate and relevant guest data is important to our ability to differentiate from other retailers. Guest perceptions regarding the cleanliness and safety of our stores, the functionality, reliability, and speed of our digital channels and fulfillment options, our in-stock levels, the effectiveness of our promotions, the attractiveness of our third party offerings, such as the clinics and pharmacies owned and operated by CVS, and other factors also affect our ability to compete. No single competitive factor is dominant, and actions by our competitors on any of these factors or the failure of our strategies could have an adverse effect on our sales, gross margins, and expenses.

We sell many products under our owned and exclusive brands. These brands are an important part of our business because they differentiate us from other retailers, generally carry higher margins than equivalent national brand products and represent a significant portion of our overall sales. If we are unable to successfully develop and support our owned and exclusive brands, if one or more of these brands experiences a loss of consumer acceptance or confidence, or if we are unable to successfully protect our intellectual property rights in these brands, our sales and gross margins could be adversely affected.

The continuing migration and evolution of retailing to digital channels has increased our challenges in differentiating ourselves from other retailers. In particular, consumers are able to quickly and conveniently comparison shop and determine real-time product availability using digital tools, which can lead to decisions based solely on price, the functionality of the digital tools or a combination of those and other factors. We must compete by offering a consistent and convenient shopping experience for our guests regardless of the ultimate sales channel. We must provide our guests and team members digital tools that have the right features and are reliable and easy to use. Failures to effectively execute in these efforts, actions by our competitors in response to these efforts, or failures of our vendors to manage their own channels, content and technology systems could hurt our ability to differentiate ourselves from other retailers and, as a result, have an adverse effect on sales, gross margins, and expenses.

If we are unable to successfully provide a relevant and reliable experience for our guests, regardless of where our guest demand is ultimately fulfilled, our sales, results of operations and reputation could be adversely affected.

Our business has evolved from an in-store experience to interaction with guests across multiple channels (in-store, online, mobile and social media, among others). Our guests are using computers, tablets, mobile phones and other devices to shop in our stores and online and provide feedback and public commentary about all aspects of our business. We must anticipate and meet changing guest expectations and counteract new developments and technology investments by our competitors. Our evolving retailing efforts include implementing new technology, software and processes to be able to fulfill guest orders directly from our vendors and from any point within our system of stores and distribution centers. Providing flexible fulfillment options is complex and may not meet guest expectations for accurate order fulfillment, faster and guaranteed delivery times, and low-price or free shipping. If we are unable to attract and retain team members or contract with third parties having the specialized skills needed to support these efforts, implement improvements to our guest‑facing technology in a timely manner, collect accurate, relevant, and usable guest data to support our personalization efforts, allow real-time and accurate visibility to product availability when guests are ready to purchase, quickly and efficiently fulfill our guests orders using the fulfillment and payment methods they demand, or provide a convenient and consistent experience for our guests across all sales channels, our ability to compete and our results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, if Target.com and our other guest‑facing technology systems do not appeal to our guests, reliably function as designed, integrate across all sales channels, or maintain the privacy of guest data we may experience a loss of guest confidence and lost sales, which could adversely affect our reputation and results of operations.

If we fail to anticipate and respond quickly to changing consumer preferences, our sales, gross margins and profitability could suffer.

A large part of our business is dependent on our ability to make trend‑right decisions and effectively manage our inventory in a broad range of merchandise categories, including apparel, accessories, home décor, electronics, toys, seasonal offerings, food and other merchandise. For example, our apparel and home décor assortment is continually evolving and in other areas of our product assortment, including food, we are supporting guest wellness goals and offering more items that appeal to local cultural and demographic tastes. Failure to obtain accurate and relevant data on guest preferences, predict changing consumer tastes, preferences, spending patterns and other lifestyle decisions, emphasize the correct categories, implement effective promotions, and personalize our offerings to our guests may result in lost sales, spoilage, and increased inventory markdowns, which would lead to a deterioration in our results of operations by hurting our sales, gross margins, and profitability.

Technology Investments and Infrastructure Risks

If our capital investments in technology, supply chain, new stores and remodeling existing stores do not achieve appropriate returns, our competitive position, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Our business is becoming increasingly reliant on technology investments, and the returns on these investments can be less predictable than building new stores and remodeling existing stores. We are currently making, and will continue to make, significant technology investments to provide a consistent and improved guest experience across all sales channels and improve our supply chain and inventory management systems. These technology initiatives might not provide the anticipated benefits or desired return or may provide them on a delayed schedule or at a higher cost. Our business also depends, in part, on our ability to build new stores and remodel existing stores in a manner that achieves appropriate returns on our capital investment. We compete with other retailers and businesses for suitable locations for our stores. Many of our expected new store sites are smaller and non-standard footprints located in fully developed markets, which require changes to our supply chain practices and are generally more time-consuming, expensive and uncertain undertakings than expansion into undeveloped suburban and ex-urban markets. Targeting the wrong technology or store opportunities, failing to make the best investments, being unable to make new concepts scalable or making an investment commitment significantly above or below our needs could result in the loss of our competitive position and adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations.

A significant disruption in our computer systems and our inability to adequately maintain and update those systems could adversely affect our operations and our ability to maintain guest confidence.

We rely extensively on our computer systems to manage and account for inventory, process guest transactions, manage and maintain the privacy of guest data, communicate with our vendors and other third parties, service REDcard accounts, and summarize and analyze results. We also rely on continued and unimpeded access to the Internet to use our computer systems. Our systems are subject to damage or interruption from power outages, telecommunications failures, computer viruses, malicious attacks, security breaches, and catastrophic events. If our systems are damaged or fail to function properly or reliably, we may incur substantial repair or replacement costs, experience data loss or theft and impediments to our ability to manage inventories or process guest transactions, engage in additional promotional activities to retain our guests, and encounter lost guest confidence, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

We continually make significant technology investments that are intended to help maintain and update our existing computer systems. Implementing significant system changes increases the risk of computer system disruption. The potential problems and interruptions associated with implementing technology initiatives could disrupt or reduce our operational efficiency, and could negatively impact guest experience and guest confidence.

Data Security and Privacy Risks

If our efforts to protect the security of information about our guests, team members and vendors are unsuccessful, we may face additional costly government enforcement actions and private litigation, and our sales and reputation could suffer.

We regularly receive and store information about our guests, team members, and vendors. We have programs in place to detect, contain and respond to data security incidents. However, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventive measures. In addition, hardware, software, or applications we develop or procure from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could unexpectedly compromise information security. Unauthorized parties may also attempt to gain access to our systems or facilities, or those of third parties with whom we do business, through fraud, trickery, or other forms of deceiving our team members, contractors, vendors, and temporary staff.

Until the data breach we experienced in the fourth quarter of 2013, all incidents we encountered were insignificant. The data breach we experienced in 2013 was significant and went undetected for several weeks. Both we and our vendors had data security incidents subsequent to the 2013 data breach; however, to date these other incidents have not been material to our consolidated financial statements. Based on the prominence and notoriety of the 2013 data breach, even minor additional data security incidents could draw greater scrutiny. If we, our vendors, or other third parties with whom we do business experience additional significant data security breaches or fail to detect and appropriately respond to significant data security breaches, we could be exposed to additional government enforcement actions and private litigation. In addition, our guests could lose confidence in our ability to protect their information, which could cause them to discontinue using our REDcards or loyalty programs, or stop shopping with us altogether.

Supply Chain and Third Party Risks

Changes in our relationships with our vendors, changes in tax policy or trade relations, interruptions in our supply chain or increased commodity or supply chain costs could adversely affect our results of operations.

We are dependent on our vendors to supply merchandise to our distribution centers, stores and guests. As we continue to add capabilities, our fulfillment network becomes increasingly complex and operating it becomes more challenging. If our fulfillment network does not operate properly or if a vendor fails to deliver on its commitments, we could experience merchandise out-of-stocks, delivery delays or increased delivery costs, which could lead to lost sales and decreased guest confidence, and adversely affect our results of operations.

A large portion of our merchandise is sourced, directly or indirectly, from outside the United States, with China as our single largest source. The results of the recent United States elections may signal a change in trade policy between the United States and other countries. Because a large portion of our merchandise is sourced, directly or indirectly, from outside the United States, major changes in tax policy or trade relations, such as the disallowance of tax deductions for imported merchandise or the imposition of additional tariffs or duties on imported products, could adversely affect our business, results of operations, effective income tax rate, liquidity and net income.

Political or financial instability, currency fluctuations, changes in trade policy, trade restrictions, tariffs or duties, the outbreak of pandemics, labor unrest, transport capacity and costs, port security, weather conditions, natural disasters or other events that could slow or disrupt port activities and affect foreign trade are beyond our control and could materially disrupt our supply of merchandise, increase our costs, and/or adversely affect our results of operations. There have been periodic labor disputes impacting the United States ports that have caused us to make alternative arrangements to continue the flow of inventory, and if these types of disputes recur, worsen, or occur in other countries through which we source products, it may have a material impact on our costs or inventory supply. Changes in the costs of procuring commodities used in our merchandise or the costs related to our supply chain, including vendor costs, labor, fuel, tariffs, duties, currency exchange rates, and supply chain transparency initiatives, could have an adverse effect on gross margins, expenses, and results of operations. Changes in our relationships with our vendors also have the potential to increase our expenses and adversely affect results of operations.

A disruption in relationships with third party service providers could adversely affect our operations.

We rely on third parties to support our business, including portions of our technology development and support, our digital platforms and fulfillment operations, credit and debit card transaction processing, extensions of credit for our 5% REDcard Rewards loyalty program, the clinics and pharmacies operated by CVS within our stores, the infrastructure supporting our guest contact centers, and aspects of our food offerings. If we are unable to contract with third parties having the specialized skills needed to support those strategies or integrate their products and services with our business, if we fail to properly manage those third parties, if they fail to meet our performance standards and expectations, including with respect to data security, then our reputation, sales, and results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, we could face increased costs associated with finding replacement providers or hiring and retaining team members to provide these services in-house. An example of our reliance on third parties is our relationship with CVS. If our guests do not react favorably to CVS’s operations or if our relationship with CVS is ineffective, our ability to discontinue the relationship is limited and our results of operations may be adversely affected. In addition, if we wish to have clinics and pharmacies in any new stores, those clinics and pharmacies must be owned and operated by CVS, which limits our flexibility in designing and operating new stores and new store concepts.

Legal, Regulatory, Global and Other External Risks

Our earnings are highly susceptible to the state of macroeconomic conditions and consumer confidence in the United States.

Virtually all of our sales are in the United States, making our results highly dependent on United States consumer confidence and the health of the United States economy. In addition, a significant portion of our total sales is derived from stores located in five states: California, Texas, Florida, Minnesota and Illinois, resulting in further dependence on local economic conditions in these states. Deterioration in macroeconomic conditions or consumer confidence could negatively affect our business in many ways, including slowing sales growth, reducing overall sales, and reducing gross margins.

These same considerations impact the success of our credit card program. Although we no longer own a consumer credit card receivables portfolio, we share in the economic performance of the credit card program with TD, which owns the receivables generated by our proprietary credit cards. Deterioration in macroeconomic conditions could adversely affect the volume of new credit accounts, the amount of credit card program balances and the ability of credit card holders to pay their balances. These conditions could result in us receiving lower profit‑sharing payments.

Uncharacteristic or significant weather conditions, alone or together with natural disasters, could adversely affect our operations.

Uncharacteristic or significant weather conditions can affect consumer shopping patterns, particularly in apparel and seasonal items, which could lead to lost sales or greater than expected markdowns and adversely affect our short-term results of operations. In addition, our three largest states by total sales are California, Texas and Florida, areas where natural disasters are more prevalent. Natural disasters in those states or in other areas where our sales are concentrated could result in significant physical damage to or closure of one or more of our stores, distribution centers or key vendors, and cause delays in the distribution of merchandise from our vendors to our distribution centers, stores, and directly to guests, which could adversely affect our results of operations by increasing our costs and lowering our sales.

We rely on a large, global and changing workforce of team members, contractors and temporary staffing. If we do not effectively manage our workforce and the concentration of work in certain global locations, our labor costs and results of operations could be adversely affected.

With over 300,000 team members, our workforce costs represent our largest operating expense, and our business and regulatory compliance is dependent on our ability to attract, train, and retain the appropriate mix of qualified team members, contractors, and temporary staffing and effectively organize and manage those resources as our business and strategic priorities change. Many team members are in entry-level or part-time positions with historically high turnover rates. Our ability to meet our changing labor needs while controlling our costs is subject to external factors such as labor laws and regulations, unemployment levels, prevailing wage rates, collective bargaining efforts, health care and other benefit costs, changing demographics, and our reputation and relevance within the labor market. If we are unable to attract and retain adequate numbers and an appropriate mix of qualified team members, contractors and temporary staffing, our operations, guest service levels, support functions, and competitiveness could suffer. Those factors, together with increasing wage and benefit costs, could adversely affect our results of operations. We are periodically subject to labor organizing efforts. If we become subject to one or more collective bargaining agreements in the future, it could adversely affect our labor costs and how we operate our business.

We maintain a headquarters location in India and sourcing offices in China where there has generally been greater political, financial, environmental and health instability than the United States. An extended disruption of our operations in India or offices in China could adversely affect certain operations supporting stability and maintenance of our digital channels, information technology development, and sourcing operations.

Failure to address product safety and sourcing concerns could adversely affect our sales and results of operations.

If our merchandise offerings do not meet applicable safety standards or Target's or our guests’ expectations regarding safety, supply chain transparency and integrity of sources of supply, we could experience lost sales and increased costs and be exposed to legal and reputational risk. All of our vendors must comply with applicable product safety laws, and we are dependent on them to ensure that the products we buy comply with all safety standards. Events that give rise to actual, potential or perceived product safety concerns, including food or drug contamination, could expose us to government enforcement action or private litigation and result in costly product recalls and other liabilities. All of our vendors must also comply with our Standards of Vendor Engagement, which cover a variety of expectations across multiple areas of social compliance, including supply chain transparency and sources of supply. We have a social compliance audit process, but we are also dependent on our vendors to ensure that the products we buy comply with our standards. Negative guest perceptions regarding the safety of the products we sell and events that give rise to actual, potential or perceived social compliance concerns could hurt our reputation and result in lost sales. For example, we recently terminated a relationship with a vendor that supplied us with cotton sheets that were represented to be 100 percent Egyptian cotton after we discovered that the vendor substituted non-Egyptian cotton. If that event or if similar events in the future cause our guests to seek alternative sources for their needs, we could lose sales and it may be difficult and costly for us to regain the confidence of our guests.

Our failure to comply with federal, state, local, and international laws, or changes in these laws could increase our costs, reduce our margins, and lower our sales.

Our business is subject to a wide array of laws and regulations in the United States and other countries in which we operate. Significant workforce-related legislative changes could increase our expenses and adversely affect our operations. Examples of possible workforce-related legislative changes include changes to an employer's obligation to recognize collective bargaining units, the process by which collective bargaining agreements are negotiated or imposed, minimum wage requirements, advance scheduling notice requirements, and health care mandates. In addition, changes in the regulatory environment affecting privacy and information security, product safety, payment methods and related fees, responsible sourcing, supply chain transparency, or environmental protection, among others, could cause our expenses to increase without an ability to pass through any increased expenses through higher prices. In addition, if we fail to comply with other applicable laws and regulations, including wage and hour laws, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and local anti-bribery laws, we could be subject to legal risk, including government enforcement action and class action civil litigation, which could adversely affect our results of operations by increasing our costs, reducing our margins, and lowering our sales.

Financial Risks

Changes in our effective income tax rate could adversely affect our business, results of operations, liquidity, and net income.

A number of factors influence our effective income tax rate, including changes in tax law, tax treaties, interpretation of existing laws, and our ability to sustain our reporting positions on examination. Changes in any of those factors could change our effective tax rate, which could adversely affect our net income. In addition, our operations outside of the United States may cause greater volatility in our effective tax rate.

If we are unable to access the capital markets or obtain bank credit, our financial position, liquidity, and results of operations could suffer.

We are dependent on a stable, liquid, and well-functioning financial system to fund our operations and capital investments. In particular, we have historically relied on the public debt markets to fund portions of our capital investments and the commercial paper market and bank credit facilities to fund seasonal needs for working capital. Our continued access to these markets depends on multiple factors including the condition of debt capital markets, our operating performance, and maintaining strong credit ratings. If rating agencies lower our credit ratings, it could adversely impact our ability to access the debt markets, our cost of funds, and other terms for new debt issuances. Each of the credit rating agencies reviews its rating periodically, and there is no guarantee our current credit rating will remain the same. In addition, we use a variety of derivative products to manage our exposure to market risk, principally interest rate and equity price fluctuations. Disruptions or turmoil in the financial markets could reduce our ability to meet our capital requirements or fund our working capital needs, and lead to losses on derivative positions resulting from counterparty failures, which could adversely affect our financial position and results of operations.